## The Greatest Scientists

**-0575 Pythagoras** – pythagorean theorem, mathematical ratios, geometrical harmonies – subsequent: Euclid, Llul

**-0325 – Euclid** – encyclopedia of geometry – subsequent: Eratosthenes, Apollonius, Heron, Theon, Hypatia, ibn Sina, Omar Khayyam, Mersenne, Non-Euclidean geometry

**-0287 Archimedes** – screw pump, buoyancy from displacement, three dimensional geometry, spirals, mathematical exhaustion technique – subsequent: al-Jazari, Fontana/Tartaglia, Mersenne, Descartes, Fermat, Mach, Hilbert

**0499 – Aryabhata** – heliocentric theory, hindu-arabic numbering system, algebra, trigonometry, eliptical orbits, quadratic equations – subsequent: al-Khwarizmi, al-Battani, Cardano, Euler

**0990 – Bi Sheng** – first movable type printing press – subsequent: Gutenberg

**1136 – al-Jazari** – inventions using crankshafts, gears, suction pumps, automated devices and clocks that formed the foundation for the vacuum pump, steam engine and most of the industrial revolution – subsequent: **“Suction pump to transistor”**

**1170 – Fibonacci** – discovered the “Fibonacci series” – subsequent: Nicholas of Cusa, Napier, Kepler, Descartes, Pascal, Turing

**1232 – Llul** – created a machine to calculate “truths” by manipulating a symbolic alphabet – subsequent: Leibniz, Babbage, Boole, Turing, Shannon

**1401 – Nicholas of Cusa** – heliocentric theory, mathematics of infinites, geometry – subsequent: Copernicus, Kepler, Descartes, Fermat, Newton, Leibniz, Cauchy, Cantor

**1473 – Copernicus** – heliocentric theory, astronomy – subsequent: Galileo, Kepler, Newton

**1501 – Cardano** – cubic and quartic equations, imaginary and complex numbers, probability – subsequent: Descartes, Euler, Ruffini, Gauss, Abel, Hamilton

**1564 – Galileo** – telescope, astronomy, thermometer – subsequent: Newton, barometer

**1596 – Descartes** – coordinate graphing system, algebraic geometry, analytic geometry – subsequent: Newton, Leibniz, Euler

**1642 – Newton** – calculus, gravity, laws of motion, optics, physics – subsequent: – Bernoulli, Lagrange, Arago

**1646 – Leibniz** – calculus, binary number system – subsequent: 1789 – Cauchy

Babbage, Lovelace, Riemann, Weiner, Mandelbrot

**1777 – Gauss** – non-euclidean geometry, prime numbers, differential geometry – subsequent: Grassman, Kirchoff, Riemann, Maxwell, Clifford, Klein, Einstein, Kaluza, Weil

**1831 – Maxwell** – equations that unified electromagnetism – subsequent: Heaviside, Lorentz, Poincare, Tesla, Thomson, Hertz, Planck, Minkowski, Einstein, Kaluza, Michelson-Morley experiment

**1879 – Einstein** – photoelectric effect, special relativity, general relativity

**1879 – Korzybski** – general semantics, abstraction, multi-valued logic

**1887 – Schrodinger** – wave equation for an atom