1896 – Zeeman effect

The Faraday effect showed magnetic fields interact with beams of light by rotating the plane of polarization of the light. Lorentz hypothesized that a magnetic field would also effect the frequency of light given off. Then, in 1896 Pieter Zeeman discovered that when you place an atom that is emitting photons into a magnetic field, the field distorts the electron orbitals, causing the frequencies of light emitted to be split into distinct spectral lines.

1845 – Faraday effect
1873 – electromagnetic waves

1913 – Stark effect
1924 – electron spin

Timeline of the Atom

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