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QUANTUM STUFF – Quantum Mechanics

STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM A simple map of the atom: Particles – in the early days of atomic theory, all components were thought of as particles and this model is still taught at elementary levels. Nucleus – is a combination of larger particles found together at the center of an atom. The particles are the […]

Stars May Make Bow Shock Waves

When objects move through a medium, they often push the medium out of their way, creating a wave like the bow wave of a boat pushing water away. When an aircraft is pushing air away in a bow wave, as the speed of the craft nears the speed of sound, the wave becomes compressed into […]


Elementary particles are not so much discrete “balls” of matter like marbles or planets as they are “clouds” of localized characteristics. Particles are often “fuzzy” around the edges, in terms of describing their physical limits and their location in space. But we know that these clouds or lumps that we call particles can interact with […]

Simplifying Quantum Mechanics Is Possible

Ignoring the script that insists, “the quantum world and the large scale world play by two different sets of rules”, this simple demonstration shows that there may be an equally simple explanation for “quantum” events and the “wave-particle duality” paradox. All of our observational data seems to confirm that elementary “items” at some level act […]

1925 – electron “spin”

The electron acts more like a rotating cloud of electromagnetic charge than like a particle. The rotation or angular momentum of the field is called “electron spin”. The credit for discovering electron spin has been given by history to Samuel Goudsmit and George Uhlenbeck in 1925. Ralph Kronig proposed the idea earlier in the year, […]

1905 – photoelectric effect

Maxwell‘s equations showed that light, electricity and magnetism all had similar wave characteristics and suggested that light was a variation of the electro-magnetic wave form. If this was true, light and other electro-magnetic waves impacting metal would cause a flow of electric current in the metal. At the time, scientists were using electrified glass tubes […]

1768 – Fourier – bio

Jean Babtiste Joseph Fourier (known as Joseph) was born in 1768 in France and was a mathematician who became known for his work on heat transfer and the analysis of periodic functions (wave forms) using combinations of trigonometric series. These are now called Fourier series and the process is called Fourier analysis. PRECURSOR: 1642 – […]