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Refueling in Space Means Staying There

Our future lies in space, not pinned down on the surface of a planet at the bottom of a gravity well. Once we have managed to climb out of that dark hole, we will have little reason to go back down into it. Most of the fuel required for space travel is burned up in […]

Doubling Life Expectancy Over the Past 150 Years

We now have a life expectancy of just under 80 years, which is double what it was 150 years ago. The biggest differences are an understanding of how germs spread disease and the creation of clean water supplies. Improvements in personal hygiene, food handling and the development of vaccines have also played key roles. Our […]

Asteroid Belt Oasis

A new theory suggests that an asteroid belt, positioned at just the right place in a planetary system, can help promote the development of life. In order for life as we know it to evolve, a planet must have some water and the organic, carbon based building blocks that form the needed chemical stew. There […]

Navigation: Clocks and Compasses

The history of navigation tools is about clocks, compasses and sextants. Navigating requires knowledge about where you are and where you want to go. Early navigation probably involved short, local trips, where there was no need to know your precise location and only a direction was needed to aim for some destination. This could be […]

Asteroid Ice

Astronomers have detected the spectrum signature of ice on an asteroid called 24 Themis in the main belt. They believe the thin coating of frost on the 200 kilometer wide rock is constantly being evaporated by the Sun and then replenished from an interior supply deep inside the rock. Astronomers Find Water On Asteroid’s Surface […]

Commerce in Space

Commerce in space will be driven by the demands of exchange and the economic factors involved. Raw Materials: Air and water are likely to be in high demand and even if they become somewhat abundant, will always remain treasured for their inherent importance. Food will be mostly manufactured locally, assuming you have the raw materials […]

Water on the Moon and Mars

It has long been known that water exists in comets, asteroids, on Mars and on the Moon, but the key question has always been, “how much is there?” Shadows in craters at the Moon’s poles have been suspected to hold some ice, but there was little hope of finding enough moisture across the rest of […]

Economics in Space

Before attempting to predict how commerce will occur in space or how government will be designed to regulate it, it is important to understand how the basic economic factors will be changed. Comparison of Economic Elements On Earth ELEMENT In Space free AIR expensive cheap WATER expensive moderate FOOD moderate expensive ENERGY cheap expensive TERRITORY […]

1000 – weight driven clock

Prior to this date, many large water driven clocks were using gearing techniques to maintain their accuracy. These were documented in Spain and China and possibly other locations. At some point in the eleventh century, arabic engineers switched over to using weights to drive the geared clock mechanisms.