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1786 – electrical stimulation

In 1786, in Bologna Italy, Luigi Galvani noticed that the muscles of a dead frog twitched when they came in contact with a metal probe and there were sparks visible between the probe and the frog muscle. Galvani made the assumption that the sparks came from the frog muscle. His associate, Alessandro Volta disagreed with […]

3D Printing Bones With Electronics and Stem Cells Implanted

This amazing video shows 2 bones being 3D printed with a tendon connecting them, and imbedded with graphene, and conductive ink. A transistor is inserted and connected with the conductive ink. Two different types of stem cells are printed into the bone material and the tendon material. Aether 3D Bioprinter – Bioprinting Bone with Graphene […]

1663 – friction electric generator

In 1663, Otto von Guericke invented the first known generator that produced electricity through friction by rubbing a pad against a large ball of sulphur. PRECURSOR: -0624 – Thales 1269 – Epistola de Magnete – Peregrinus 1600 – de Magnete – Gilbert SUBSEQUENT: 1737 – Galvani (born) 1745 – Volta 1746 – Leyden jar 1752 […]

1854 – mercury vacuum pump

In 1854, Heinrich Geissler invented the mercury displacement vacuum pump, which led to high quality vacuum tubes, which in turn led to the invention of the transistor. PRECURSOR: -0460 – Democritus 1206 – suction pump 1643 – barometer 1650 – vacuum pump SUBSEQUENT: 1855 – vacuum tube 1875 – Crookes’ tube 1897 – electron discovered […]

Suction pump to transistor

In the late 1500s and early 1600s the newfound use of glass for windows and continuing expansion of metallurgy was requiring ever increasing amounts of timber for fuel. As nearby forests were diminished, demands for the mining of coal and coke increased. New uses for metals of all kinds added to the need for mining. […]

1815 – Geissler – bio

Johann Geissler was born in German in 1815 and is known for the invention of the Geissler tube. Prior to creating his tubes, in 1855, Geissler developed a new way to use mercury displacement in a vacuum pump that was more efficient than previous pump designs. The new low pressure created by the mercury pump […]

Single Atom Transistor

Single Atom Transistor

While single atom transistors have been created previously, they were positioned with somewhat random locations, making it difficult to find one that was actually useful. A team from the University of New South Wales in Australia has been able to locate a single atom of phosphorus with near atomic precision. The silicon substrate the atom […]

Graphene Walls – Walls of Graphene

Putting 100 trillion Field Effect Transistors (FETs) on a one square centimeter chip may become possible using graphene walls. The term “graphene walls” in this context describes tiny strips or “nano-ribbons” of carbon atoms. Other researchers have developed ideas for creating cheap and flexible lighting and display substrates made of graphene components embedded in plastic. […]

1800 – voltaic pile (battery)

A voltaic pile is a group of galvanic cells that are joined together as a circuit in series, forming an electric battery. While it is possible that primitive batteries were in use for several thousand years prior, Alessandro Volta, assembled the first well documented working battery. Volta was following up on Luigi Galvani’s famous experiment […]

Memristor

Fundamental electronics is being changed by the “memristor”, a device that basically acts like a variable resistor and is capable of remembering the state it was in. This is significant because a single memristor may be able to replace many transistors and capacitors, making possible much smaller electronic circuits, and because it seems that it […]