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timeline of calculating machines

-3,000 – abacus 1614 – logarithms – by John Napier 1622 – slide rule invented by Oughtred 1623 – calculating clock by Schickard could add and subtract up to six places 1642 – Pascal built an “arithmetical machine” which used wheels linked by teeth, capable of automatic carrying to the next place 1668 – Morland […]

timeline of information theory

Information theory was founded by Claude Shannon in 1948 with an article he wrote that was published in the Bell System (Labs) Technical Journal. The article dealt with the mathematical engineering process involved in transmitting information over noisy connections. Shannon defined the unpredictability of information as “entropy” and applied statistical analysis techniques similar to those […]

From Euclid to Minkowski

The history of non-euclidean geometry -0325 Euclid – “The Elements” was a series of books on mathematics and geometry that established a system of axioms and postulates forming proofs that became a cornerstone of logical reasoning and modern science. In the geometry of planes (2D spaces), the “parallel postulate” establishes that parallel lines on a […]

Origin of Life Could Predate Earth

Moore’s Law postulates the growth rate of a particular subset of technology. Geneticists are suggesting that a similar approach can map out the growth rate of genetic complexity, helping to predict when our genetic timeline began. And it works pretty well, matching up some key points on the timeline, but there’s just one problem – […]

timeline of metalworking

With the obvious exception of casting and forging, metalworking seems to have largely followed in the footsteps of woodworking techniques. The bow drill was one of the earlier tools. Rotary filing with burrs and other forms of circular cutters later became milling machines. Shaping by cutting and planing with sharp edges followed and was eventually […]

Time Lapse of Asteroid Discovery

This amazing animation shows how many asteroids have been discovered across a time span of 1980-2012. Here are some rounded numbers that show the progression of discovery over the years: 1980 – 009,000 1990 – 015,000 2000 – 100,000 2010 – 525,000 2012 – 580,000 Watch the video to see how it happened. Asteroid Discovery […]

timeline of algebra

timeline of trigonometry – the foundations for algebra were laid by earlier techniques used in geometry and trigonometry -0250 – “Arithmetica” by Diophantus is a collection of algebraic problems and solutions 0499 – Aryabhata – began basic symbolic algebraic equations using the Hindu decimal number system 0780 – al-Khwarizmi “The Compendious Book on Calculation by […]

timeline of artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence today is mostly a branch of computer science that attempts to create agents that collect and analyze sensory input in order to make reasoning decisions about actions to take based on the decisions. -0940 – King Mu of Zhou (Chinese mythology/history) – an engineer named Yan Shi gave King Mu a mechanical human […]

timeline of time measurement

-3500 – sundials used in Egypt -2000 – base sixty used in Sumer for time measurements -1500 – water drip clocks used in Babylon and Egypt 0500 – candle clocks used in China and Japan 0700 – hourglass (a sand based variation of drip clock) used in Europe 1000 – weight driven clock 1136 – […]

Navigation: Clocks and Compasses

The history of navigation tools is about clocks, compasses and sextants. Navigating requires knowledge about where you are and where you want to go. Early navigation probably involved short, local trips, where there was no need to know your precise location and only a direction was needed to aim for some destination. This could be […]