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1854 – Maxwell’s Fish-Eye Lens

In 1854, James Clerk Maxwell conceived of a perfect spherical lens while pondering the eye of a kipper (fish) that was served for breakfast. When light moves from one medium (like air) to another (like glass or water) it is bent as its speed changes. The degree to which it is bent is called the […]


Diffraction is the bending of waves as they pass around obstacles. Refraction is the bending of waves as they pass from one medium to another with different transmission velocities. Conventional lenses focus light waves by using refraction to either converge or diverge the beam of light as they pass through the lens. Any device which […]