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Voyage to Asteroid “Bennu”

NASA has launched a spacecraft mission called OSIRIS-REx, which will spend several years traveling toward an intercept with an asteroid that is called, “101955 Bennu” in the year 2020. Bennu is part of a group that is known as the “Apollo” class of asteroids and is categorized as a “Near Earth Asteroid” because it crosses […]

Building a Mining Base on the Moon

A base on the Moon will more useful to supply construction materials to building projects in space that it will be for any other purpose. Supply of raw materials for building in space will need to come from locations that are not deep inside a gravity well. That means from asteroids or from moons will […]

Space Elevator Climber Design

A space elevator is a long ribbon that extends into space and hangs in a state of equilibrium because the centrifugal force throwing the top half of the ribbon out into space balances the force of gravity trying to drag the bottom half down. The elevator becomes functional when a climber car uses the ribbon […]

Mapping Clusters of Galaxies

A new technique of mapping clusters of galaxies using the direction in which they are moving, creates a new look at superclusters of galaxies. Galaxies clump together into clusters and clusters of galaxies clump together into supergalaxies. The name given to our supercluster is Laniakea, which is Hawaiian for “immeasurable heaven”. Laniakea: Our home supercluster […]

The Difference Between Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets

Ceres was discovered in 1801 as the first asteroid. Pluto was discovered in 1930 as the ninth planet in the Solar System. But recently, it was reclassified as a “dwarf planet”. Let’s take a look at how the classification works for asteroids, comets, and dwarf planets: Asteroid – a mostly rocky object that is smaller […]

Synthetic Gravity in Space Habitats

Human bodies have evolved inside a gravitational field that provides a constant downward pressure as long as we stand on the surface of the planet. Healthy operation of the body depends on this state. In the zero-gravity environment of space, we will need to synthetically reproduce this condition. The term, “centrifugal force” describes the inertial […]

Asteroid Mining Process

In order to mine valuable materials from asteroids, we’ll need to establish some new technologies and processes: Prospecting – asteroids will be mined for: valuable metals & minerals, volatiles (ice, water, oxygen, hydrogen), stony ores, and even the regolith (dirt) will be used. Most prospecting will be done by bots or drones, automatically. Prospect claiming […]

Orbital Dynamics by NASA

This excellent web site from NASA explains a lot about how orbits work. A geosynchronous orbit at an altitude of 35,786 kilometers (above sea level) allows a satellite to orbit at the same rate the Earth turns, so it always remains over the same spot on the planet below. Lagrange points are orbital sweet spots […]

How Multiple Universes Might Form

Our universe seems to be expanding. Based on this observation, we conclude that it probably originated from a dense single “spot” or singularity. The “Big Bang” theory is often presented as a rapidly expanding “blob of stuff”, that spreads out across a static framework of space and time. It makes sense to consider that the […]

Quintessence Means Fifth Element

FOUR ELEMENTS Plato defined four basic elements as earth, water, air, and fire. In his analysis of geometry he defined five regular solids. He paired up the four elements with four of the five regular solids and this suggested to him that there might be another element. He assigned earth to the cube, water to […]