Archive for Singularity

You are browsing the archives of Singularity.

Variable Ethics

As we begin to embed ethical principles into machines and software that can make decisions, we need to examine the use cases involved. The ethical codes needed in a powerful and dangerous machine that can easily cause life threatening damage are quite different from those needed in a software agent that makes grocery purchasing choices […]

Time is Persistence

Understanding time is important because it’s a fundamental building block of the Universe. Most think the Universe is composed of matter, energy, space, and time. It also seems somewhat obvious that energy and matter are directly related, with matter seeming like slow energy or vice versa, energy is fast matter. String theory proposes that rolled […]

Measuring “Well Being”

We often measure the success of processes with numbers that represent some state of the output or operation of the process. Financial organizations tend to use a “bottom line” number of profitability. But nation-states and some other groups have different purposes and need different measures. When the purpose of a group is to sustain or […]

Cyber Currency – part 5/5 – Summary

SUMMARY A Market example: (our friendly neighborhood farmers market) Barter – direct exchange of goods works well at a small scale, but has limits Limited to a specific time and place No means for deferred payments Dividing some items is difficult or impossible No means for storing value Market example: we decide to create our […]

Cyber Currency – part 4/5 – Mining and Coins

MINING The purpose of mining Production of a cryptographic journal Time delay and proof of work that serves to prevent counterfeiting Currency expansion by creating new coin as mining rewards Process A request for a new block is issued There is a block calculation competition by miners After a competition has been won, the new […]

Cyber Currency – part 3/5 – Blockchain

Cyber Currency - part 3/5 - Blockchain

BLOCKCHAIN A digital ledger or journal of transactions (database) Cryptographic in nature (encrypted) A shared database with write permissions for everybody Validity of transactions is determined cryptographically instead of by a central authority Cryptographic nature Each transaction is combined with the hash value from the previous transaction and a new hash value is calculated Tamper […]

Cyber Currency – part 2/5 – Hashing Algorithms

Cyber Currency - part 2/5 - Hashing Algorithms

HASHING ALGORITHMS Hash = one way encryption Uses a mathematical formula (or algorithm) Maps data of variable size to a unique fixed length string Outputs a string called the “hash” or “digest” The same input always produces the same output It cannot be reversed (cryptographic) There are no collisions (no duplicates from different inputs) Hashing […]

Cyber Currency – part 1/5 – Currency Basics

CURRENCY BASICS Barter systems: Involve direct exchange of goods and services Have no intermediate token like money There are some difficulties: The barter process needs a coincidence of two exchange partners (same time, same place) Some trading goods cannot be easily divided into small parts Deferred payments are problematic Storing wealth is not practical Establishing […]

Transformable 4D Printing

3D printing that produces components that can self assembly, are programmable and transformable is called 4D printing. SEE ALSO: Morphable Robotic Furniture Malleable Morphing Materials Complex Order From Simple Interactions Software That Creates Hardware SW Without HW

QUANTUM STUFF – Quantum Mechanics

STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM A simple map of the atom: Particles – in the early days of atomic theory, all components were thought of as particles and this model is still taught at elementary levels. Nucleus – is a combination of larger particles found together at the center of an atom. The particles are the […]