## Archive for logic

You are browsing the archives of logic.

You are browsing the archives of logic.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was born in Leipzig, Germany in 1646 and became known primarily for his contributions to philosophy and mathematics but was also accomplished in many other fields. He created the modern binary number system that is used by computers and at the same time as Newton, invented calculus. He invented the mathematical sign […]

Giacomo (Jacopo) Zabarella was born in Padua, Italy in 1533. He attended the University of Padua, obtained a PhD in philosophy there, taught philosophy there, and eventually died in Padua. He was primarily known for his contributions to philosophy and logic, setting the standard for other philosophers during the Renaissance in Europe. PRECURSOR: -0384 – […]

Zeno of Elea, was born around -460 in southern Italy and influenced the thinking and work of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Zeno studied under the philospher Parmenides and became famous for posing paradoxical problems. Plato wrote a dialogue called “Parmenides”, which is our primary source on the thinking of Zeno. PRECURSOR: -0575 – Pythagoras CONCURRENT: […]

Alfred Habdank Sharbek Korzybski was born in 1879 in Warsaw, Poland. He founded the theory of general semantics which deals with developing an awareness of the difference between layers of abstraction that separate symbols (such as words) and the events they represent. PRECURSOR: -0384 – Aristotle 1839 – Peirce 1848 – Frege 1861 – Whitehead […]

-0575 Pythagoras – pythagorean theorem, mathematical ratios, geometrical harmonies – subsequent: Euclid, Llul -0325 – Euclid – encyclopedia of geometry – subsequent: Eratosthenes, Apollonius, Heron, Theon, Hypatia, ibn Sina, Omar Khayyam, Mersenne, Non-Euclidean geometry -0287 Archimedes – screw pump, buoyancy from displacement, three dimensional geometry, spirals, mathematical exhaustion technique – subsequent: al-Jazari, Fontana/Tartaglia, Mersenne, Descartes, […]

Ramon Llull was born in 1232 in Majorca, now part of Spain. He was a logician, philosopher and theologian. Llull was convinced that it was possible to “compute” truths by creating an “alphabet” to represent basic concepts and then using a mechanical “calculator” to manipulate the symbols and reveal the truth. His calculator was comprised […]

Ludwig Wittgenstein was born in 1889 in Vienna, Austria and was a philosopher, mathematician and logician. He concentrated in the philosophy of mathematics and theories about the use of language. In 1922, he published a book-length work called, “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus” that explored the relationship between language and reality and was presented as propositions representing logical […]

George Boole was born in Lincoln, England in 1815 and was a mathematician. He is most known for his work reducing logic to a form of algebra. In 1854, Boole’s book on logic, “An Investigation of the Laws of Thought on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities” was published. This created […]

Alfred Tarski was born in 1901 in Warsaw, Poland (then part of Russia) and was a mathematician and is considered to be one of the four greatest logicians of all time (along with Aristotle, Frege and Godel). In his first paper in 1921, he collaborated with Stephan Banach on the “Banach–Tarski paradox”, which describes a […]

How difficult will it be to translate ethics into logic trees that can be encoded into software for use by AIs? In a simplified ethical decision, there is a starting state, usually at least two possible actions (or an action/inaction pair) to choose between and outcome states to calculate and compare. In order to make an […]