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Making Metallic Hydrogen

Hydrogen is the simplest atom, composed of a single proton in the center and a single electron around the edge. We think of it in a natural form as a gas, but at low temperatures (-423 F) it will liquefy. Once it’s in liquid form, adding a lot of pressure (5 million atm) can force […]

The Moon as a Fuel Depot

There are good reasons to mine the Moon. Ice will supply water and oxygen for life, and hydrogen and oxygen for fuel. Aluminum and other metals can be extracted and formed into basic building block materials for construction. But both the ice and the building materials will be mostly thrown out into space for use […]

Artificial Leaf

A leaf is a biological mechanism designed to use the energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugar, providing the plant with energy in a form it can use. This chemical process is called photosynthesis. Researchers are working on artificial leaves that can use the energy from sunlight to split […]

Water on the Moon and Mars

It has long been known that water exists in comets, asteroids, on Mars and on the Moon, but the key question has always been, “how much is there?” Shadows in craters at the Moon’s poles have been suspected to hold some ice, but there was little hope of finding enough moisture across the rest of […]

Mining Asteroids

Instead of trying to send supply ships up the gravitational well from Earth to supply colonies in space, it is more sensible to find the supplies out in flat space. It is possible to extract precious metals and valuable minerals and elements from asteroids in the asteroid belt. How it will be done is open […]