Archive for era – second industrial

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1844 – Benz – bio

Karl Benz was born in Muhlberg, Germany in 1844 under the name, Karl Friedrich Michael Vaillant. (Vaillant was his mothers last name and Benz his fathers) He is credited with building the first car in 1885. Benz studied locksmithing, locomotive engineering, and mechanical engineering. He helped launch a foundry and sheet metal workshop. He worked […]

1887 – Ramanujan – bio

Srinivasa Ramanujan was born in 1887 in southern India. He was a self taught mathematical genius, who learned by reading books and often struggled with studies in school other than mathematics because of his intense focus. At the age of fifteen, he learned how cubic equations had been solved and developed his own technique to […]

1823 – Betti – bio

Enrico Betti was born in the Tuscany region of Italy in 1823 and was a mathematician. He established proofs and demonstrations of many propositions in Galois theory. He did developmental work on the theory of elasticity. He established a topological classification system based on connectivity that would extend across many dimensions. PRECURSOR: -0325 – Euclid […]

1822 – Hermite – bio

Charles Hermite was born in the Lorraine region of France in 1822 and was a mathematician. He made contributions to number theory, algebra, and elliptic functions. He used elliptic functions to solve a fifth degree algebraic equation. In 1873, he proved that “e” is a transcendental number. PREQUISITE: 1707 – Euler 1736 – Lagrange 1777 […]

1894 – Lemaitre – bio

George Lemaitre was born in 1894 in Belgium and was an astronomer and physicist who became known for promoting the theory of an expanding universe. In 1927, he published an article titled, “A Homogeneous Universe of Constant Mass and Increasing Radius accounting for the Radial Velocity of Extra Galactic Nebulae”, which used the relativity equations […]

1845 – Cantor – bio

Georg Cantor was born in 1845, in Russia, but spent most of his life in Germany and is known as a German mathematician who invented set theory. In 1874, he published a paper titled, “On a Characteristic Property of All Real Algebraic Numbers”, which examined relationships between the elements of two sets. Cantor also did […]

1861 – Engel – bio

Friedrich Engel was born in 1861 in Saxony (now Germany) and was a mathematician primarily known for collaborating with Sophus Lie to publish, “Theory of Transformation Groups”. He did his doctoral studies under the guidance of Felix Klein. He studied the history of non-euclidean geometry and translated some of the papers of Lobachevsky from Russian […]

1814 – Sylvester – bio

James Joseph Sylvester was born in London, England in 1814. He was a mathematician who did significant work on group theory, matrix theory and determinants. He often collaborated with Arthur Cayley and used matrix theory to study geometries of higher dimensions. PRECURSOR: 1501 – Cardano 1625 – de Witt 1642 – Seki 1646 – Leibniz […]

1834 – Haeckel – bio

Ernst Haeckel was born in 1834 in Germany and was a biologist who discovered many new species and developed a method of mapping all species into a genealogical tree that shows their evolutionary development. He called this technique phylogeny and also created the terms phylum and ontogeny. A phylogenetic tree shows the history of the […]

1822 – Louis Pasteur – bio

Louis Pasteur was born in 1822 in France and is known for discovering pasteurization (heating beverages to kill bacteria in them) and vaccination. Vaccination is the process of exposing a patient to a vaccine, which causes a low level infection, stimulating the immune system to develop antibodies, creating an immunity against the disease. He explained […]