Archive for electron spin

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Sunspots as vortex rings

A recent article explored half vortex rings in water, that showed a fairly stable pair of vortices on the surface of the water – see: Vortex – Physics – Dimensions Sunspots are often described as pairs of vortices. Perhaps they are vortex rings in the plasma of the sun that we can observe when they […]

1925 – electron “spin”

The electron acts more like a rotating cloud of electromagnetic charge than like a particle. The rotation or angular momentum of the field is called “electron spin”. The credit for discovering electron spin has been given by history to Samuel Goudsmit and George Uhlenbeck in 1925. Ralph Kronig proposed the idea earlier in the year, […]

1922 – Stern-Gerlach experiment

In 1922, the Stern-Gerlach (named after Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach) experiment sent a beam of silver atoms through a deflecting magnetic field and onto a collecting plate. Charged electrons orbiting the nucleus of an atom create a “magnetic moment” (a vector of twisting force) that makes the atom behave as though it were a […]

1928 – Dirac equation

Based on the previous Schrodinger equation and Klein-Gordon equation, in 1928 Paul Dirac produced a wave equation that helped to explain the characteristic of an electron known as “spin”. In part, it dealt with an expansion of Einstein’s famous equation of “e=mc^2” that allowed a consideration of two sets of roots, one positive and one […]

1896 – Zeeman effect

The Faraday effect showed magnetic fields interact with beams of light by rotating the plane of polarization of the light. Lorentz hypothesized that a magnetic field would also effect the frequency of light given off. Then, in 1896 Pieter Zeeman discovered that when you place an atom that is emitting photons into a magnetic field, […]

1900 – Pauli – bio

Wolfgang Pauli was born in Vienna, Austria in 1900 and was a physicist known as one of the creators of quantum mechanics. He particularly become known for the “Pauli Exclusion Principle” which states that no two electrons can be in the same quantum state at the same time. PRECURSOR: 1831 – Maxwell 1838 – Mach […]