## Archive for complexity

You are browsing the archives of complexity.

You are browsing the archives of complexity.

While the main premise of the article linked below is correct, it understates a key part of password cracking methodology. There are two primary means of cracking passwords: using word lists, and brute force. There are also many hybrid combinations, which is an important focus of the article. In brute force cracking, every element of […]

“Emergence” is when simple components interact in simple ways but more complex properties, processes, and behavior emerge that were not part of the original pieces or their properties and behavior. Complexity emerges spontaneously in natural systems around us all the time. Ant colonies, birds flocking, chemical interactions, crystallization, traffic flow, and the automata from the […]

Andrey Kolmogorov was born in Russia in 1903 and was a mathematician who made contributions to the fields of probability, topology, turbulence, and complexity. He contributed over 300 hundred papers in most areas of mathematics and also supported creating special schools for gifted students. In 1933, Kolmogorov established a set of axioms that he considered […]