Archive for biology

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1834 – Haeckel – bio

Ernst Haeckel was born in 1834 in Germany and was a biologist who discovered many new species and developed a method of mapping all species into a genealogical tree that shows their evolutionary development. He called this technique phylogeny and also created the terms phylum and ontogeny. A phylogenetic tree shows the history of the […]

1822 – Louis Pasteur – bio

Louis Pasteur was born in 1822 in France and is known for discovering pasteurization (heating beverages to kill bacteria in them) and vaccination. Vaccination is the process of exposing a patient to a vaccine, which causes a low level infection, stimulating the immune system to develop antibodies, creating an immunity against the disease. He explained […]

1881 – Fleming – bio

Alexander Fleming was born in 1881 in Scotland. He was the first to isolate penicillin after observing its antibiotic effect. He also discovered that bacteria could develop resistance to penicillin under certain conditions. PRECURSOR: -0600 – Sushruta -0460 – Hippocrates 0129 – Galen 0980 – ibn Sina 1514 – Vesalius 1578 – Harvey 1632 – […]

Teixobactin, the First New Antibiotic Class in 28 Years

In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered that penicillin has the ability to kill many disease causing bacteria, creating a new kind of medication known as antibiotics. Over the years since then, many variations of penicillin have been discovered and other groups or “classes” of antibiotics have also been found. Each class of antibiotics continues to be […]

1953 – DNA – Watson and Crick

In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick published an article in the journal, “Nature”. The article, titled “Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid”, described the DNA double helix structure which stores and replicates genetic information. When the two identical halves of the helix separate, the chemical bonds which held them […]

Post Biological Intelligence

We know that intelligence does not depend upon biological forms. Biology based intelligence takes advantage of a “built-in”/natural evolutionary process to adapt and enhance ability to survive. Once conscious intelligence reaches a sufficient level of knowledge, it can duplicate that evolution in algorithms based in any substrate form. Material substrates include metallic conductors and semi-conductors […]

2003 – Human Genome project completed

The Human Genome Project – [genome.gov] The Human Genome Project (HGP) was one of the great feats of exploration in history – an inward voyage of discovery rather than an outward exploration of the planet or the cosmos; an international research effort to sequence and map all of the genes – together known as the […]

The Evolution of Civilization

Since our current growth rate in some areas of technology is accelerating toward a singularity threshold, it is difficult to predict what our civilization will be like in only a few hundred years. To describe civilization a thousand years from now is nearly impossible to accomplish with any confidence of accuracy. It might be reasonable […]

Neural Networks

A biological neural network is a collection of connected neurons that offer some function as a nervous system or brain. But the term “neural network” usually refers to a software logic array that attempts to mimic some part of the design or function of a biological network. In the biological form, there are neuron cells […]

-0330 – Theophrastus – bio

Theophrastus was a Greek biologist and botanist, who also made contributions to the fields of philosophy, logic, physics, ethics and language. He has been called “the father of taxonomy” because of his work on systematically classifying plants. He applied the same kind of methodology to a book that described moral outlines of characters in a […]