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A Giant Ring of Gamma Ray Bursts

A Giant Ring of Gamma Ray Bursts

A Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) is the brightest, most energetic event that we have discovered in the universe. They seem to be an intense but narrow beam of radiation released from the center of a collapsing giant star as it spirals inward. The GRB beam is emitted from both sides of the center of the swirl as matter is destroyed, creating a cosmic light saber of deadly radiation and incredible size. Some GRBs emit more energy than our Sun does in hundreds of billions of years.

Surprising giant ring-like structure in the universe – [phys.org]

Five billion light years is a distance almost inconceivable, even on a cosmic scale. To better illustrate the extent of this physical quantity, it’s enough to say that 35,000 galaxies the size of our Milky Way are needed to cover that distance. Thanks to a surprising discovery made by a Hungarian-U.S. team of astronomers, now we know that a structure this big really exists in the observable universe.

The researchers found a ring of nine gamma ray bursts (GRBs)—the most luminous events in the universe—about 5 billion light years in diameter, and having a nearly regular circular shape, noting that there is a one in 20,000 probability of the GRBs being in this distribution by chance. They published their findings on July 27 in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Gamma Ray Bursts – [outerspacecentral.com]

What are Gamma Ray Bursts. Normally lasting anywhere from a few milliseconds to several hours, gamma ray bursts (GRBs) shine hundreds of times brighter than a typical supernova and about a million trillion times as bright as the sun. GRBs are for a brief time the brightest source of cosmic gamma ray photons in the universe. GRBs emit more energy in a few seconds than our whole galaxy does in a year. GRBs are observed roughly once per day from completely random directions of the sky. (It was their complete randomness that originally convinced astronomers that GRBs existed outside of our Milky Way.) Note that the label of a GRB indicates its date, i.e. year-month-day, for example, GRB 130427A means it occurred on April 27, 2013 and if there were more than one that day A means it was the first of the day.

We only see a GRB when earth lies along the path of one of the two narrow GRB jets, which means there are many more GRBs each day that we don’t see. The nuclear blast emits a surge of gamma rays as well as x-rays, and they produce afterglows that can be observed both at optical and radio wavelengths. No two GRBs are alike, each one has its own individual light curve plotted over time.

Gamma ray bursts are separated into two classes: long duration bursts and short duration bursts. Long duration bursts last more than 2 seconds and short duration ones last less than 2 seconds. However, short duration bursts range from a few milliseconds to 2 seconds with an average duration time of only 0.3 seconds (300 milliseconds). The long duration bursts normally last anywhere from 2 seconds to a few hours with an average duration time of about 30 seconds. Scientists believe that the two types of bursts have completely different sources. They are not small and large versions of the same phenomenon.

SEE ALSO:
Hypernova Core Collapse and Gamma Ray Bursts
Polarizing Gamma Ray Bursts

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