## timeline of algebra

**timeline of trigonometry** – the foundations for algebra were laid by earlier techniques used in geometry and trigonometry

-0250 – “Arithmetica” by Diophantus is a collection of algebraic problems and solutions

**0499 – Aryabhata** – began basic symbolic algebraic equations using the Hindu decimal number system

**0780 – al-Khwarizmi** “The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing” used the term “al-jabr” (for completion), creating the field known as Algebra

**1048 – Omar Khayyam** used geometric conic sections to solve cubic equations

**1170 – Fibonacci** – “Liber Abacci” translated Arabic mathematics and transferred it to Europe

**1545 – Ars Magna** published by **Cardano**, included the solutions to the cubic and quartic equations

1637 – Analytic Geometry developed by **Descartes** and **Fermat** merged geometry and algebra

1770 – “Elements of Algebra” published by **Euler**

1798 – proofs for the fundamental theorem of algebra are offered by first Woods and then **Gauss**

1830 – “Treatise on Algebra” by Peacock applies logic to symbolic algebra

1832 – **Galois** theory develops **group theory**, a part of abstract algebra

1843 – quaternion algebra introduced by **Hamilton**

1847 – “The Mathematical Analysis of Logic” by Boole creates the field known as Boolean algebra

1901 – “Vector Analysis” by Gibbs builds upon quaternions and vector algebra to create vector calculus