## QUANTUM STUFF – Quantum Mechanics

STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM
A simple map of the atom:

• Particles – in the early days of atomic theory, all components were thought of as particles and this model is still taught at elementary levels.
• Nucleus – is a combination of larger particles found together at the center of an atom. The particles are the neutron with a neutral charge, and the proton with a positive charge.
• Orbiting electrons – smaller particles that orbit the nucleus in circular paths and have a negative charge.

SCHRODINGER EQUATION
DeBroglie suggested in 1924 that all matter has wave characteristics. This was confirmed in 1927 by the Davisson-German experiment and DeBroglie was awarded a Nobel prize for Physics in 1929 for his work.

Schrodinger wave equation in 1925, described electrons as waves. Instead of the expected two dimensional waves, this described three dimensional pulsations known as spherical harmonics. This actually describes some of the complex arrangements of electron patterns but it also involves some complex mathematics and suggests more than three dimensions are involved.

Born proposed that the wave equation represented a probability amplitude. This meant that the wave equation was not describing a material electron, but instead the probability of where an electron would be found.

PROBABILITY STATES
Born described the wave function as a probability wave that represents probability states regarding the characteristics of an electron. When the electron is observed, the probability wave collapses into a specific state.

A BETTER MAP
We need a better map of quantum mechanic functions than the one offered by the idea of probability states. While quantum mechanic calculations work flawlessly, the explanation that “probability waves” collapse into a material existence when observed leaves much to be desired.

The concept of wave-particle duality seems to point toward waves that we sometimes observe as nodes or particles. This means we lack the ability to observe the wave at times. Complex waves that overlap and clump together to form observable nodes might explain this. The idea that the waves are multidimensional seems difficult to accept, but it offers explanations that go beyond the “probability wave” concept.

Quantum Mechanics (an embarrassment) – Sixty Symbols