## 1646 – Leibniz – bio

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was born in Leipzig, Germany in 1646 and became known primarily for his contributions to philosophy and mathematics but was also accomplished in many other fields. He created the modern binary number system that is used by computers and at the same time as Newton, invented calculus. He invented the mathematical sign for an operation of integration, known as an integral. He designed a mechanical calculator.

Leibniz was a philosopher and worked on foundational elements of logic. He advanced a Pythagorean concept that described a fundamental component of the universe called a “monad”. The monad is considered to be primary to dimensionality, geometry, and numbering. His study of calculations and logic convinced him that fundamental concepts could be represented with an “alphabet” of symbol characters that would enable the creation of a universal language or algebra of thought. He also described the process of arranging the coefficients of linear equations into an array. This process is now known as “Gaussian elimination” and the array is called a matrix.

PRECURSOR:

-0385 – Aristotle

**1232 – Llull**

**1571 – Kepler**

**1596 – Descartes**

**1608 – Torricelli**

CONCURRENT:

**1623 – Pascal**

**1629 – Huygens**

1632 – Spinoza

**1642 – Newton**

SUBSEQUENT:

**1789 – Cauchy**

**1791 – Babbage**

1802 – DeMorgan

**1815 – Boole**

1815 – Lovelace

**1826 – Riemann**

1894 – Weiner

**1924 – Mandelbrot**