1953 – MASER

In 1953, Townes, Gordon and Zeiger built the first MASER (Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation). It worked by stimulating ammonia to produce a coherent beam of microwave radiation. A few years later, the same principle was extended to create the first LASER which emitted coherent light.

PRECURSOR:
1917 – quantum radiation theory (Einstein)
1917 – radar principles (Tesla)
1920 – magnetron (Hull)
1934 – radar (Girardeau)
1937 – klystron
1946 – Ionescu and Mihu build a MASER prototype

CONCURRENT:
1952 – Basov and Prokhorov describe the principle of the MASER

SUBSEQUENT:
1960 – LASER
1984 – x-ray laser

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