## 1924 – wave particle duality

Louis de Broglie’s doctoral thesis in 1924, “Research on Quantum Theory” proposed a theory of electron waves that include the properties of both waves and particles. The wave-like component of the electron was confirmed by experiment in 1927 and de Broglie’s theory became accepted and generally known as wave-particle duality.

PRECURSOR:

1630 – “Treatise on Light” (wave theory) – Descartes

1675 – “Hypothesis of Light” (particle theory + ether) Newton

1678 – “Treatise on Light” (wave theory) – **Huygens**

1801 – double slit experiment – Young

**1873 – electromagnetic waves** – Maxwell

1897 – electron discovered – JJ Thomson

1901 – photoelectric effect – Tesla

1901 – black body radiation – Plank’s law

1905 – photoelectric effect – Einstein

1909 – oil drop experiment – Millikan and Fletcher

**1913 – quantum theory**

CONCURRENT:

1925 – matrix mechanics – Heisenberg

**1926 – wave mechanics**

1927 – pilot wave theory – **de Broglie**

SUBSEQUENT:

1935 – EPR paradox

1952 – hidden variable theory – Bohm

1957 – many worlds – Everett

1964 – Bell’s Theorem

2000 – “Collective Electrodynamics” (electron waves) – Mead

SEE ALSO:

**1892 – de Broglie (bio)**

**Timeline of the Atom**

**Feynman on Wave Particle Duality (QED Lecture in New Zealand)**