Andrey Kolmogorov was born in Russia in 1903 and was a mathematician who made contributions to the fields of probability, topology, turbulence, and complexity. He contributed over 300 hundred papers in most areas of mathematics and also supported creating special schools for gifted students.
In 1933, Kolmogorov established a set of axioms that he considered to be a “calculus of probabilities”. This became the basis for modern probability theory. He also did work on turbulance and complexity theory.