### QUANTUM STUFF – Quantum Mechanics

STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM A simple map of the atom: Particles – in the early days of atomic theory, all components were thought of as particles and this model is still taught at elementary levels. Nucleus – is a combination of larger particles found together at the center of an atom. The particles are the […]

### timeline of the University of Padua

1222 – earliest document mentioning Padua University 1401 – Nicholas of Cusa received a doctorate of religious law in 1423 at Padua University and became influential in the beginning of the renaissance period. 1473 – Copernicus received a doctorate of religious law in 1503 at Padua University. His most famous work, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium […]

### The Universe and Us

We are the Universe – [youtube.com] So when I look up at the night sky, and I know that yes, we are part of this universe, we are in this universe, but perhaps more important than both of those facts, is that the universe is in us. When I reflect on that fact, I look […]

### History of the Telescope

The video below offers an introduction to the history of the telescope. Below the video is a link to a timeline of the telescope and related events in history. Amazing History of the Telescope – [youtube.com] 1608 – telescope – [hackingtheuniverse.com] Hans Lippershey, a Dutch lensmaker has been given primary credit for making the first […]

### timeline of information theory

Information theory was founded by Claude Shannon in 1948 with an article he wrote that was published in the Bell System (Labs) Technical Journal. The article dealt with the mathematical engineering process involved in transmitting information over noisy connections. Shannon defined the unpredictability of information as “entropy” and applied statistical analysis techniques similar to those […]

### The Greatest Scientists

-0575 Pythagoras – pythagorean theorem, mathematical ratios, geometrical harmonies – subsequent: Euclid, Llul -0325 – Euclid – encyclopedia of geometry – subsequent: Eratosthenes, Apollonius, Heron, Theon, Hypatia, ibn Sina, Omar Khayyam, Mersenne, Non-Euclidean geometry -0287 Archimedes – screw pump, buoyancy from displacement, three dimensional geometry, spirals, mathematical exhaustion technique – subsequent: al-Jazari, Fontana/Tartaglia, Mersenne, Descartes, […]

### From Euclid to Minkowski

The history of non-euclidean geometry -0325 Euclid – “The Elements” was a series of books on mathematics and geometry that established a system of axioms and postulates forming proofs that became a cornerstone of logical reasoning and modern science. In the geometry of planes (2D spaces), the “parallel postulate” establishes that parallel lines on a […]

### The Beginning of the Universe

The beginning of the universe, for beginners – Tom Whyntie View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-beginning-of-the-universe-for-beginners-tom-whyntie How did the universe begin — and how is it expanding? CERN physicist Tom Whyntie shows how cosmologists and particle physicists explore these questions by replicating the heat, energy, and activity of the first few seconds of our universe, from right […]

### timeline of metalworking

With the obvious exception of casting and forging, metalworking seems to have largely followed in the footsteps of woodworking techniques. The bow drill was one of the earlier tools. Rotary filing with burrs and other forms of circular cutters later became milling machines. Shaping by cutting and planing with sharp edges followed and was eventually […]

### Suction pump to transistor

In the late 1500s and early 1600s the newfound use of glass for windows and continuing expansion of metallurgy was requiring ever increasing amounts of timber for fuel. As nearby forests were diminished, demands for the mining of coal and coke increased. New uses for metals of all kinds added to the need for mining. […]