Era – Roman

0598 – Brahmagupta – bio

Born in 0598 in the region of north western India currently known as Rajasthan, Brahmagupta is best known as the first mathematician to establish rules for working with the number “zero” as a quantity instead of a placeholder or a lack of quantity. He made one of the first documented attempts to use the principles […]

0476 – Aryabhata – bio

Born in the Assak region of central India around 476, Aryabhata was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who wrote a text in Sanskrit that is known as the Aryabhatiya. It was written in poetic verse and is a compilation of Indian knowledge of astronomy and mathematics at the time. Through this text, Aryabhata became the father […]

0078 – Zhang Heng – bio

Born in 78 in the province of Yuzhou (now known as Henan) of the Han dynasty in China, Zhang Heng was known as a scientist, mathematician, engineer, astronomer, painter and more. He became the chief astrologer to the emperor, An-Ti. He created a rotating globe that was a map of the sky and constellations. He […]

0129 – Galen – bio

Galen was born in Pergamon (then Greece, part of the Roman Empire, now in Turkey) in 0129. He was a physician and philosopher who followed the teaching of Hippocrates and through the study of anatomy, made great advances in medical science. He improved the understanding of how the circulatory system works and was a skilled […]

0010 – Heron – bio

Heron was born around 0010 and was a Greek mathematician, engineer and inventor who lived in Alexandria, Egypt when it was a province of the Roman Empire. He designed the first known simple steam engine (the aeolipile or Hero’s engine), the first vending machine, a wind powered organ, a water displacement pump (fire engine pump), […]

0370 – Hypatia – bio

Hypatia was a Greek female mathematician, philosopher and astronomer, born around 370 in Alexandria, Egypt. She studied the works of Plato and Aristotle. Her father, Theon was a mathematician and philosopher at the University of Alexandria. She edited some of her fathers work and wrote commentaries on other works of the time, such as Euclid […]

0085 – Ptolemy – bio

Claudius Ptolemaeus was born in Egypt around 85 as a Roman citizen. He was a mathematician, astronomer and geographer. He is famous for a series of books: Harmonics – on musical theory Optics – properties of light, including reflection, refraction and color Geography – used a coordinate grid system Tetrabiblos (four books) – on astrology […]

0220 – printing

Wood block printing was being used in China around 220 to print on cloth.

0105 – paper

While papyrus (a mat of woven reeds) was used thousands of years earlier and various forms of parchment (often skin-based) were also used well before this, the first recorded form of true paper in a modern sense was in China in 105.

0300 – gunpowder

The combination of chemicals needed to make gunpowder and the reaction that occurs when they are heated was recorded in China around 300 by Ge Hong in the Book of the Master of the Preservations of Solidarity.