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Category: Era – Prehistory

Era – Prehistory

-3500 – glass

Naturally occurring volcanic glass (obsidian) was use before we learned to make glass around -3,500 in Egypt and Mesopotamia. The earliest form of glass made by humans was probably glazes that were used on ceramic pots. By mixing crushed quartz with calcite (calcium carbonate) from limestone, a solution is produced which can be fired into […]

-5,000 – wheel and axle

Prior to the wheel, heavy loads could be moved by dragging sleds and the sleds could be moved with more ease if rollers were placed beneath the sleds. At some point the rollers evolved into wheels that were attached to axles which were fixed to the wheels and turned with them. Eventually, the fixed wheel […]

-3,000 – abacus

An abacus is a counting device, usually constructed as a frame with beads sliding on either wires or slender rods. The beads represent quantities of numbers and each successive row of beads can represent a different place in a numbering system. In the decimal system, the first row of beads would be “1s” and the […]

-0800 – Baudhayana – bio

Baudhayana lived some time around -0800 in India and contributed to appendices of the Vedic hymns known as Shulba Sutras. The Shulba Sutras were instructions on the design and construction of fire altars and contained geometric principles including the Pythagorean theorem and rules for constructing many geometric shapes. They included Pythagorean triples, calculations using decimals […]

-1900 – pi

pi or &#960 is a constant but irrational number that represents the ratio between the area of any circle and the square of its radius. This gives us the famous formula: area = &#960 x r2, which can be approximated by 22/7 or 3.14159. pi can also be expressed by dividing the circumference of any […]

-1500 – iron age

During the bronze age, iron ore was known and some limited iron working was done. But the high melting temperature of iron made it difficult to extract and to work with. It was possible to extract from iron ore a cluster of iron globules that were mixed with impurities. Reheating and working this metal could […]

-7000 – copper age

The earliest tools and weapons were made from stone, primarily flint. Then it was noticed that a nugget of copper (like a blue-green stone) could be melted in a fire and reshaped. This discovery eventually made it possible to melt copper into a liquid, then pour it into a mold and allow it to cool […]

-1400 – steel

Iron can be hardened if it is reheated in a furnace with some charcoal, allowing carbon to transfer from the charcoal to the iron. The hot metal alloy is then quenched in water and the result is steel, which is just as workable as iron but will hold a sharp edge longer. PRECURSOR: iron age […]

-3300 – bronze age

By allowing copper and tin to melt together and then solidify, an alloy known as bronze is formed. Bronze is harder than either of the original metals and will hold a sharp edge longer. It was first discovered and used in the Middle East. The ability to produce valuable objects made of metal and the […]

-3100 – Stonehenge started

-3100 - Stonehenge started

A circular arrangement of large stones on Salisbury plain in Wiltshire county, England, Stonehenge was probably set up as a burial site and point for rituals of healing and worship. It was erected in stages over a period of at least one thousand years. Stonehenge, England Laugh not so lightly, King, for not lightly are […]