### 1903 – Kolmogorov – bio

Andrey Kolmogorov was born in Russia in 1903 and was a mathematician who made contributions to the fields of probability, topology, turbulence, and complexity. He contributed over 300 hundred papers in most areas of mathematics and also supported creating special schools for gifted students. In 1933, Kolmogorov established a set of axioms that he considered […]

### 1905 – photoelectric effect

Maxwell‘s equations showed that light, electricity and magnetism all had similar wave characteristics and suggested that light was a variation of the electro-magnetic wave form. If this was true, light and other electro-magnetic waves impacting metal would cause a flow of electric current in the metal. At the time, scientists were using electrified glass tubes […]

### 1922 – Stern-Gerlach experiment

In 1922, the Stern-Gerlach (named after Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach) experiment sent a beam of silver atoms through a deflecting magnetic field and onto a collecting plate. Charged electrons orbiting the nucleus of an atom create a “magnetic moment” (a vector of twisting force) that makes the atom behave as though it were a […]

### 1918 – Feynman – bio

Richard Feynman was born in 1918 in New York, USA and was a physicist. He was one of the founders of quantum electrodynamics and invented a shorthand to show particle interactions now known as “Feynman diagrams”. In 1965, he won a Nobel prize for his work in quantum electrodynamics, along with Julian Schwinger and Sin-Itiro […]

### 1902 – Dirac – bio

Paul Dirac was born in 1902 in Bristol, England. He was a mathematician and physicist who helped to develop quantum mechanics and discovered an equation that successfully predicted anti-matter. In 1928 he created the Dirac equation which provides a mathematical description of elementary particles that is consistent with both relativity and quantum mechanics. The equation […]

### 1912 – Turing – bio

Alan Turing was born in London, England in 1912 and was a mathematician and one of the first computer scientists. He did work on probability theory, number theory and cryptography, but is best known for creating the concept of a computer, which became called, the “Turing Machine”. While Babbage had designed a mechanical “analytical engine”, […]

### 1903 – Von Neumann

John von Neumann was born in Budapest, Hungary in 1903 and was a mathematician. He did work with logic, set theory, quantum theory and statistical mechanics. His work on fixed point theorems led others to later accumulate three Nobel prizes in the area. He was an expert in explosion hydrodynamics and worked on the “Manhattan […]

### 1916 – Shannon – bio

Claude Elwood Shannon was born in 1916 in Michigan, USA and was a mathematician, cryptographer and engineer who become known as “the Father of information theory”. He used Boolean algebra to create the concept of digital logic which most modern electronics are based upon. He did work on the foundations of modern cryptography and designed […]

### 1928 – Dirac equation

Based on the previous Schrodinger equation and Klein-Gordon equation, in 1928 Paul Dirac produced a wave equation that helped to explain the characteristic of an electron known as “spin”. In part, it dealt with an expansion of Einstein’s famous equation of “e=mc^2” that allowed a consideration of two sets of roots, one positive and one […]

### 1901 – Tarski – bio

Alfred Tarski was born in 1901 in Warsaw, Poland (then part of Russia) and was a mathematician and is considered to be one of the four greatest logicians of all time (along with Aristotle, Frege and Godel). In his first paper in 1921, he collaborated with Stephan Banach on the “Banach–Tarski paradox”, which describes a […]